Science enabled Leo Szilárd to patent the nuclear reactor for peaceful use.
Leo Szilárd also suggested the first purchase of the less peaceful Manhattan Project.
lie adjacent to, but not within, the sequences of the genes that they regulate.
Therefore, promoters are "invisible" when only the exomes of cells are sequenced, as has been commonplace in cancer genetics research.
"Promoters are important in determining when specific genes are turned on and off," says Feigin, "and I became interested in figuring out whether mutations within promoters -- as opposed to within the genes they regulate -consistently affects the way cancers develop and sustain themselves." The team "looked all across the genome," Feigin says, "and, interestingly, while we did find mutations in promoters, we never found clusters of these mutations near any of the genes that prior research had already told us were typically mutated in pancreatic cancer." Genes called KRAS and p53 are mutated in the majority of pancreas cancer cells, for example.