The internal chamber is filled with a viscous ink that is dispensed at its tip during use by the rolling action of a small sphere.
The first fountain pens making use of all these key ingredients appeared in the 1850s.
It was in the 1880s that the era of the mass-produced fountain pen finally began.
The ballpoint pen went through several failures in design throughout its early stages.
It has even been argued that a design by Galileo Galilei (during the 17th century), was that of a ballpoint pen.
The Romanian inventor Petrache Poenaru received a French patent for the invention of the first fountain pen with a replaceable ink cartridge on May 25, 1827.