An alternative to individual monitors at different stages of production planning is a more general account put forward by Nozari et al.
(2011) who hypothesized that the production system might be monitored via domain-general, action monitoring systems that are sensitive to response conflict.
A number of recent studies have hypothesized that monitoring in speech production may occur via domain-general mechanisms responsible for the detection of response conflict.
Outside of language, two ERP components have consistently been elicited in conflict-inducing tasks (e.g., the flanker task): the stimulus-locked N2 on correct trials, and the response-locked error-related negativity (ERN).
Recent research and modeling has suggested, however, that conflict signals arising within the production itself might serve as a critical cue to self-monitoring (Nozari et al., 2011).