As German society gradually changed from having a feudal structure to a mercantilist system, guilds or Zünfte of craftsman were established and became a major factor in German economics and society.
Some Medieval guild halls are still standing and can be visited today.
The Protestant-Catholic conflict reached a climax in the Thirty Years War, where many German territories were devastated.
It took 100 years until Germany's population had grown back to prewar level.
Germany is subdivided into 16 politically powerful states that sometimes correspond to historic regions predating a unified German state, while they sometimes randomly throw vastly different peoples into the same state while separating them from their more similar kin across state lines.