Haye's Derails (which guide the flanges of wheels over and across to the outer side of the rails to derail a moving vehicle), Scotch Blocks (which prevent points from being set for vehicles on the loop line to be sent to the main line), and similar devices are sometimes used (more so in the past - these are less common now).
More commonly now, derailing switches (points that deliberately take the moving vehicle off the line and derail them) or points that lead to sand humps or sidings are used.
(CTC was first introduced on the NER's busy MG section between Gorakhpur and Chupra, and later on the Bongaigaon-Changsari section of NFR.) The suburban section of Madras Egmore - Tambaram also has CTC.
Busy urban areas have electronic interconnections among the signal systems of the stations within the areas.
Following British practice, IR's signalling is essentially route signalling where the signals generally indicate which route has been set for a train, letting the driver choose the speed as appropriate for the divergences, curves, etc.