Chronological Analysis of the Scriptures- Literal interpretation of the scriptures led some people to conclude that the Earth was created approximately 6,000 years old.
Atoms are arranged as a nucleus surrounded by an electron cloud, with electrons zinging around at different distances from the nucleus.
Chemists conceive of these distances as shells, and define the properties of atoms by what is in each shell, according to the University of California, Davis.
When this happens in a mineral, the two departing nuclei leave behind a trail of destruction in the crystal lattice. Fission track dating is ideal for samples from recent times back to 100,000,000 years.
Beyond 100,000,000 years, the density of the tracks becomes so great (saturated) that they cannot be counted reliably.
Kelvin knew that the Earth gets hotter with increasing depth (the geothermal gradient), and took this observation as evidence that the Earth is cooling off. Chamberlain challenged Kelvins assumption that the earth started as a molten body.