The cystectomy and reconstruction depends on several factors like the sex of the patient, the size of the bladder and the entirety of the infected area.The procedure usually requires a hospital stay of at least a week and can take up to 8 weeks to reach full recovery.
The traditional procedure requires a surgeon to create about a 6 - 8 inch incision down the middle of the sternum, while connecting a heart-lung bypass machine that maintains blood circulation throughout the body.
The off-pump bypass is essentially the same procedure, except the heart-lung machine is not administered.
A craniectomy has a higher level of risk than a craniotomy because the portion of the skull is not to be replaced for a good amount of time after the procedure is complete.
The procedure is usually a last-resort life saving measure and is generally needed to reduce swelling or bleeding around or within the brain.
While the procedure is roughly 90% successful, the readmission rate for another heart attack is high as well.