Around San Francisco Bay, and (it was implied) throughout the state of California, aboriginal culture had remained static for a period of up to 3500 or 4000 years. This prevailing opinion (actually a very simple model) that there were no significant cultural stages or periods in Central California persisted, under Kroeber's dominance, until 1929, at which time no less than four separate chronologies from different areas of California and Nevada appeared.
Local archaeology seemed to promise so little of positive value that the resources of the department [of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley] were diverted to rescue ethnographic information from the survivors of the last aboriginal generation of California Indian groups. Schenck and Dawson (1929) published a tentative chronology for the northern San Joaquin Valley, M. Rogers (1929) reported a sequence of three cultural periods for the southern part of California, D. Rogers (1929) detailed his Oak Grove, Hunting, and Canaliño Cultures of the Santa Barbara region (Warren 192-223), and Loud and Harrington (1929) described a sequence for Lovelock Cave, in North-central Nevada (Fredrickson 19).
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The first serious attempt at archaeological modeling and classification in Central California was made by Max Uhle (1907), who recognized a series of ten natural levels at the Emeryville shellmound following his excavations in 1902.
These levels he subdivided into two phases of occupation, noting differences in artifacts, burial pattern, and shellfish species from the lower to the upper layers of the mound (Warren 198-219).
In the next few years, this information began to appear as a number of other Bay region sites were excavated and reported.
The principal early excavations and analyses included those of Nelson (1909, 1910), Loud (1918), and Gifford (1916).
The earliest attempts at archaeological culture classification which took place in Central California were centered primarily around the San Francisco Bay and the "climax" area of the Sacramento Delta.