By folding the leaves over each other close to the binding edge, the process also helps maintain the rounded shape of the spine, preventing the leaves from working their way forward.
Used since the 16th century, backing also enhances the openability of a volume by creating a slight crease in each leaf near the spine. In edition binding and library binding, backing is done by machine.
Back matter is paginated in arabic numerals continuously with the text.
Blank leaves may be included at the end to make up a full section.
A flexible or hollow back is preferable because it allows the volume to open flat. In telecommunication, the portion of a physical network that covers the longest distance and handles the heaviest traffic.
To operate at the highest possible transmission speed, it must be constructed of cable that provides maximum bandwidth.
A badge may also indicate the individual's position, enabling the patron to distinguish professionally trained librarians from members of the technical staff.