The problem with fossil dating methods

Conversely, great-ape hip bones have long ilia with small sacral articular areas, and sacra of the great apes are long and narrow.

The human pelvis is unique among primates in having the ilia curved forward so that the inner surfaces face one another instead of being aligned sideways, as in apes and other quadrupeds.

That we and the extinct hominins are somehow related and that we and the apes, both living and extinct, are also somehow related is accepted by anthropologists and biologists everywhere.

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were probably related more to standing, reaching, and squatting than to extended periods of walking and running.

Human beings stand with fully extended hip and knee joints, such that the thighbones are aligned with their respective leg bones to form continuous vertical columns.

Indeed, our large buttock, anterior thigh, and calf muscles are virtually unused when we stand still.

Instead of muscular contraction, the human bipedal stance depends more on the way in which joints are constructed and on strategically located ligaments that hold the joints in position.

Body mass is transferred through the pelvis, thighs, and legs to the heels, balls of the feet, and toes.